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Citations: Home

Welcome to the Northland Pioneer College Library's guide to writing and citation styles!


Click the tabs to find style manuals, digital copies of the Library's citation handouts, citation tools, and other guidance.

If you aren't sure what style you need to use, consult your class syllabus or verify with your instructor.


A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source.

It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including: information about the author.


Citations Tools

Most Databases and Library resources have a "Cite", "Citations", or "Citation Tools" that create the Citation for you. Online sources do NOT provide this. Citations are required for your paper or project. Without them, you were likely fail the assignment.

Two big Vendors of our Databases are EBSCO and Gale. Think of Vendors as PepsiCo and Coca-Cola Co--big companies that own lots of brands, and the Databases as Sprite (owned by Coca-Cola Co) and Mountain Dew (owned by PepsiCo).

Simply click on the tool to open the citation. Choose which Citation Style, and you can either download or copy and paste it into your document.


In-Text Citations

In-Text-Citations, otherwise known as Parenthetical Citations, are what you see within the document. Different Citation Styles require the In-Text Citation to be formatted in specific ways. It provides enough information that your reader can follow it to your end of paper citation.


End-of-Paper Citation

APA refers to this as the Reference List and MLA calls it Works Cited. Either way, it is at the end of your paper, on a separate sheet of paper. It should be doubled spaced, with a hanging indent (see below). This should provide your reader with enough information that they can find the resource to verify or further research your topic. It follows a very specific format. To better understand these Citation Styles, please refer to the APA and MLA links on the left.

Why do I need to cite my source?

  • It is required by your professor and the college. Failure to cite may result in a failure of the assignment, class, or termination from college. Professors have software that can determine the similarities between your words and those of others.
  • As part of Academic Integrity,  you are avoiding Plagiarism, which is the purposeful or non-purposeful use of someone else’s words or ideas.
  • It allows your reader to be able to locate the sources that you are referencing in order to verify or conduct their own research.
  • It also demonstrates how your research is built upon the research of others and differentiates between your unique words and thoughts and those of others.

IMAGE: Citation Needed

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